Physical Variables

Accelerations*

Formula

(0.5s > 3.0 m/s2) & (> 10.0 km/h).

Description
The number of accelerations performed in a match or training session. An acceleration is counted when it is at least 3.0 m/s2 for 0.5 seconds and has to reach at least 10.0 km/h (=2.778 m/s) within the acceleration cycle that starts and stops at 0.5 m/s2.

Decelerations*

Formula
(0.5s > 3.0 m/s2) & (> 10.0 km/h).

Description
The number of decelerations performed in a match or training session. A deceleration is counted when it is at least 3.0 m/s2 for 0.5 seconds and has to start from at least 10.0 km/h (=2.778 m/s) within the acceleration cycle that starts and stops at 0.5 m/s2.

* Dependent on the (type of) measurement system used to collect the data (i.e. video tracking, GPS, LPM). The accuracy of accelerations & decelerations can differ and therefore these measures need to be used with caution, especially when comparing such data collected with different measurement systems. For example, see Buchheit et al. (2014, JSS; 2014, IJSPP).

Distance in Speed Zones

The distance covered within each speed zone (0-7, 7-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25+ km/h). The distance is accumulated from the moment the player is within the speed thresholds for each zone.

Max Speed

The maximum distance covered by the player within 1 second during the session, expressed in km/h. The max speed has to be reached in a sprint with a max valid speed of 36 km/h and a max valid acceleration of 9 m/s2, in order to eliminate possible measurement artefacts.

Runs & HI-runs

The number of runs or high-intensity runs (HI-runs) performed in a match or training session. A run is counted when it is at least 1.0 second above 15.0 km/h; a HI-run when it is at least 1.0 second above 20.0 km/h. Both start at 15.0 km/h and stop when it is below 15.0 km/h for 0.1 seconds.

Sprints

The number of sprints performed in a match or training session. A sprint is counted when it is at least 1.0 second above 25.0 km/h. Like runs and HI-runs, a sprint starts at 15.0 km/h and stops when it is below 15.0/h for 0.1 seconds.

Time (on Field) / Minutes Played

Total time that the player was on the field during the match (including when the ball was dead).

Total Distance

Total distance covered during (a part of) the match or training session, expressed in per meters or kilometres.

The above-mentioned variables are mainly used in Physical Performance Details which are explained here:


Physical-Tactical Variables

Physical variables within tactical context.

Game Phases

In order to add tactical context to the physical analyses, the match is divided into different game phases. The first distinction can be made by applying the 'Ball Alive' feature. Excluding all 'Ball Dead' timeframes results in Overall Net timeframes. Overall Gross is, therefore, the summation of all 'Ball Alive' and 'Ball Dead' timeframes, basically the whole match.

Overall Net (ball alive) can be further specified by using the 'Possession' feature. The Overall Net timeframes can be split into 'Home Team In Possession' and 'Home Team Out of Possession', the latter is automatically the same as 'Away Team In Possession'.

For the last division in the different Game Phases, the transition moments are used. Each possession phase is split up in Attacking, Defending or the transition between both. Depending on selecting the Home or Away team the four available phases will be:

  1. Attacking

  2. Defending

  3. Transition from Attacking to Defending

  4. Transition from Defending to Attacking

Note: Set Plays are not covered as a separate game phase within our current reports.


Distance covered within different Game Phases

When showing the different physical variables (e.g. distance per minute) these can be divided into the different game phases.

Overall Gross

Total distance covered, this is including all game phases and both 'ball dead' and 'ball alive' timeframes.

Overall Net

All meters covered by the field players when the ball is 'alive' are summed. Ball alive is true when the ball is on the field and is moving. Net time includes, therefore, all four game phases.

In Possession

Distance covered while the selected team is in possession of the ball.

Out of Possession

Distance covered by the selected team while the opponent is in possession of the ball.

Attacking

Timeframes when the ball is alive and the selected team is in possession of the ball for more than 5 seconds. (The opposing team is therefore Defending)

Transition Attack > Defense

Distance covered by the selected team during all transitions from Attacking to Defending. Each transition entails the first 5 seconds after losing possession of the ball.

Defending

Timeframes when the ball is alive and after which the selected team is Out of Possession for more than 5 seconds. (The opposing team is therefore Attacking)

Transition Defense > Attack

Distance covered by the selected team during all transitions from Defending to Attacking. Each transition entails the first 5 seconds after winning the ball and gaining possession.


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